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Amyloidosis : Introduction , Sign and Symptoms , Risk Factors , Types

About amyloidosis

Amyloidosis may be a 
rare and high protein deposition disease. It is caused by an abnormal protein called amyloid that builds up in tissues or organs. As the amount of amyloid protein deposits increase during a tissue or organ, they interfere with the tissue or organ’s healthy function. Eventually, the amyloid protein deposits cause symptoms and organ failure. Amyloidosis is sometimes fatal.

Amyloid protein deposits, or amyloidosis, could also be 
localized to organs, like the lung, skin, bladder, or bowel, or they will be systemic. “Systemic” means the deposits could also be found throughout the body. Systemic amyloidosis is the most common. Although amyloidosis isn't a kind of cancer, it's going to be related to certain blood cancers like myeloma .

Types of amyloidosis

There are differing types 
of amyloidosis, including the following:

Light chain (AL) amyloidosis. This is the foremost 
common sort of amyloidosis within us . The amyloid proteins that build up in the tissues in this condition are known as light chains. They can either be kappa or lambda light chains. AL amyloidosis may be a disorder of the plasma cells. Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell responsible for the production of immunoglobulins or antibodies, which are a type of protein that fights infection. In AL amyloidosis, the sunshine chain proteins are misshapen and produced in excess. They deposit in tissues and may damage 1 or more organs. The heart, kidneys, nerves, and gastrointestinal system are the most common organs affected. Because AL amyloidosis is related to the overproduction of plasmacyte proteins, it's linked to myeloma .

Autoimmune (AA) amyloidosis. AA amyloidosis is additionally 
called “secondary amyloidosis” or “inflammatory amyloidosis.” during this condition, the amyloid protein that builds up within the tissues is named the A protein. AA amyloidosis is related to some chronic diseases, like diabetes, tuberculosis, atrophic arthritis , and inflammatory bowel disease. It may also be linked to aging. AA amyloidosis can affect the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands, and lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are tiny, bean-shaped organs that fight infection.

Hereditary or familial amyloidosis. Hereditary amyloidosis is rare. It can be passed from generation to generation within a family. The proteins produced in hereditary amyloidosis may cause problems with the heart and may cause carpal tunnel syndrome and eye abnormalities. The most common subtypes involve a protein called transthyretin (TTR).

Amyloidosis: Symptoms and Signs


The symptoms of amyloidosis can vary widely, counting on 
the precise organ or number of organs suffering from the buildup of amyloid protein(s). People with amyloidosis may experience the symptoms or signs listed below. Sometimes, people with amyloidosis don't have any of those changes. Or, the cause of a symptom may be another medical condition. All of those factors can make diagnosing amyloidosis challenging because the symptoms could also be almost like those of various other diseases and conditions that are more common than amyloidosis.

Symptoms of amyloidosis are usually determined by the organ or function that is affected by the protein buildup. For example:



Ø     Kidneys. Amyloidosis in the kidneys will reduce the kidneys’ ability to filter waste and break down proteins. As a result, large amounts of protein could also be found within the urine, causing “foamy” urine. The kidneys may even stop working. Decreased urine output and changes in creatinine clearance tests, a blood test to measure kidney function, may be present.


Ø     Liver. Amyloidosis may cause the liver to grow larger and affect its ability to function normally. This may cause pain in the upper abdomen, swelling in the abdomen, and changes in liver enzymes that can be found using blood tests.


Ø     Heart. Amyloidosis of the heart may cause an irregular heartbeat, called an arrhythmia; enlarge the heart; and cause poor heart function, resulting in fluid buildup, an irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath, or chest pain.


Ø     Gastrointestinal tract. Amyloidosis of the alimentary canal may cause problems with the digestion and absorption of food nutrients, diarrhea or constipation, bleeding, blockages, and a thickened tongue, called macroglossia. It may also cause problems with the esophagus, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).


Ø     Thyroid gland. Amyloidosis of the thyroid gland may cause goiter, a noncancerous swelling of the thyroid gland.


Ø     Lungs. Amyloidosis of the lungs may cause problems with breathing, including shortness of breath.


Ø     Nervous system. Disorders of peripheral nerves are the foremost common neurological complications of amyloidosis. Patients may experience painful paresthesias (unusual sensations), numbness and balance difficulties, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, sweating, or sexual problems. Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or legs may develop. This condition is known as peripheral neuropathy. Carpal tunnel syndrome may also occur.

Amyloidosis: Risk Factors

A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of developing a disease. Although risk factors often influence the event 
of a disease, most don't directly cause the disease itself. Some people with several risk factors never develop amyloidosis, while others with no known risk factors do.


Ø    Age. The risk of amyloidosis increases as a person gets older. For AL amyloidosis, the majority of people diagnosed are older than 40.


Ø    Gender. Amyloidosis is more common in men than in women


Ø    Family history. Hereditary amyloidosis can run in families. This may be due to a genetic change, called a mutation, that is passed down from generation to generation.

Treatment overview


Different types of doctors often work together to make 
a patient’s overall treatment plan that mixes differing types of treatments. This is especially important because amyloidosis affects so many different organs.

The treatment team often includes these experts:



Ø  Hematologist. A doctor who specializes in blood disorders

Ø  Cardiologist. A doctor who treats heart conditions

Ø  Gastroenterologist. A doctor who specializes in conditions of the gastrointestinal tract

Ø  Pulmonologist. A doctor who specializes in conditions of the lungs

Ø  Nephrologist. A doctor who treats kidney problems

Ø  Neurologist. A doctor who focuses on issues involving the brain and nervous system

Notice: Please consult your doctor before following any instruction of


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